Laparoscopic Surgery Robotic Cameraman
The key attribute characteristic of the Robolens system is its novel design with the minimum number of degrees of freedom, i.e., four, and actuators, i.e., three, to fulfill all the surgeon’s requirements; this is a major advantage over the previous designs considering the cost and maintenance issues of the system when using in clinical practices. Furthermore, there is no moving part on top of the patient body and all actuators are located at a higher level than the surgeon’s head providing a larger workspace for the surgeon and clinical staff. Also, for safety reasons, the movements are stopped automatically if continued longer than 6 seconds or if the electrical motors are overloaded due to the contact of lens with body tis- sues or other objects. The system is equipped with a foot pedal and a voice recognition system to move up/down or left/right and zoom in/out, according to the command of surgeon. Several technical and safety tests were conducted on the Robolens system, including manipulability, trajec- tory accuracy, electrical safety, etc. After these tests were successfully done, the system was tested clinical- ly by three surgeons in Imam Khomeini Hospital dur- ing different laparoscopic procedures on human sam- ples and the efficacy of the system was evaluated. Results of laparoscopic Cholecystectomy on two groups of patients indicated that the operating period, image stability and the number of times necessary to clean the lens improved when using the robotic cam- eraman. Robolens system is now in the process of commercialization and at the same time further research is being conducted to add a more sophisti- cated automated motion control mode to the system in which the endoscope is kept aimed at an anatomic target or track a surgical instrument by using com-puter vision.

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